Man has seen his energy consumption increase with exponential growth since the primitive period. From a few thousand calories (food requirement), individual daily consumption currently reaches more than 250,000 kilocalories in modern technological civilization (domestic, industrial and agricultural consumption, transport).Both viticulture and agriculture have developed mechanisation since the middle of the 20th century. But beyond direct energy consumption (tractors, harvesting machines), intermediate wine products (fertilizers, plant protection products) generate an increase in energy consumption.Concerning oenology, winegrowers often knew by empiricism the importance of thermal aspects during the elaboration of a wine. All means that allowed to benefit from the coolness or natural heat were used (underground cellars, opening of the cellars during the winter, window wells oriented according to exposure or prevailing winds). In addition, the winter cold was used to ensure the tartaric stabilization of the wines.