Along with natural changes, international scientists are now almost certain of the contribution of human activities to global warming, which is expected to reach 2 to 4°c by the end of the 21st century.
The grapevine, a climbing plant, is exceptionally adaptable. And man has succeeded in adapting his growing techniques to diverse climates.
Nevertheless, apart from a few extreme situations, the vine only really flourishes in certain specific areas of the world (latitudes 20 to 53° in the northern hemisphere and 20 to 42° in the southern hemisphere).
In addition, viticultural (grape varieties, mode of cultivation) and oenological itineraries are adapted to the local micro-climate.
It is therefore reasonable to wonder whether a significant variation in the climate will change conditions of cultivation, or even the distribution of vineyards and the characteristics of wines.
In addition to the direct effects (changes in phenological stages and ripening, relative evaporation), climate change would probably have many indirect consequences:
- Surface runoff and erosion through an increase in episodes of heavy rainfall
- Flooding of vineyards in valleys or coastal plains
- Development of new parasites due to changes in vineyard ecosystems
- Modification of viticultural landscapes (vegetation, modes of cultivation)